Câștigurile pentru kripton

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Krypton laser[ edit ] A krypton laser is an ion laser using ions of the noble gas krypton as its gain medium. The laser pumping is done by an electrical discharge. Krypton lasers are widely used in scientific research, and in commercial uses, when the krypton is mixed with argon, it creates a "white-light" lasers, useful for laser light shows.

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Krypton lasers are also used in medicine e. Krypton lasers can emit visible light close to several different wavelengths, commonly Argon laser[ edit ] This argon-ion laser emits blue-green light at and nm The argon-ion laser was invented in by William Bridges at the Hughes Aircraft Company [2] and it is one of the family of ion lasers that use a noble gas as the active medium.

Argon-ion lasers are used for retinal phototherapy for the treatment of diabeteslithographyand the pumping of other lasers.

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Argon-ion lasers emit at 13 wavelengths through the visible and ultraviolet spectra, including: These wavelengths have the potential for use in underwater communications because seawater is quite transparent in this range of wavelengths. An argon-laser beam consisting of multiple colors wavelengths strikes a silicon diffraction mirror grating and is separated into several beams, one for each wavelength left to right :  nm,  nm,  nm,  nm,  nm, and  nm Common argon and krypton lasers are capable of emitting continuous-wave CW output of several milliwatts to tens of watts.

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Their tubes are usually made from nickel end bells, kovar metal-to-ceramic seals, beryllium oxide ceramicsor tungsten disks mounted on a copper heat spreader in câștigurile pentru kripton ceramic liner. The earliest tubes were simple quartz, then followed by quartz with graphite disks. In comparison with the helium—neon laserswhich require just a few milliamperes of input current, the current used for pumping the krypton laser is several amperes, since the gas has to be ionized.

The ion laser tube produces much waste heatand such lasers require active cooling.

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The typical noble-gas ion-laser plasma consists of a high-current-density glow discharge in a noble gas in the presence of a magnetic field. Bennetta co-inventor of the first gas laser the helium—neon laserwas the first to observe spectral hole burning câștigurile pentru kripton in gas lasers, and he created the theory of "hole burning" effects in laser oscillation.

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He was co-discoverer of lasers using electron-impact excitation in each of the noble gases, dissociative excitation transfer in the neon—oxygen laser the first chemical laserand collision excitation in several metal-vapor lasers. Helium—cadmium: blue laser emission at  nm and ultraviolet at  nm. Copper vapor: yellow and green emission at  nm and  nm.